Checkpoint inhibitors lift the brakes on the immune system, but may join other new drugs in pressing the accelerator on health care costs.
Innovations in laser methods and technology won Nobel Prizes in 2017 and 2018, but not all lasers are the same.
Optical tweezers developed by a new Nobel laureate could potentially be used on slightly larger objects, but not spacecraft.
The 2018 Nobel Prize in chemistry will go to Frances H. Arnold, George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter for research on enzymes, peptides and antibodies.
Optical innovations made by the three new laureates help scientists control tiny organisms and make incredibly short and powerful laser pulses.
James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo share prize for discovery of checkpoint inhibitors for cancer therapy.